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Home-->vipmovie-000-->vipmovie-015-eng Same CN
A film composed by Ennio Morricone - 015eng
NA6604 L'avventuriero / The Rover
Chronology No.
The music page in the site
Chinese IMDB
NA6604 L'avventuriero / The Rover
NA6604 L'avventuriero / The Rover
NA6604 L'avventuriero / The Rover
NA6604 L'avventuriero / The Rover
NA6604 L'avventuriero / The Rover
It is shown that the film was composed by Ennio Morricone (00:01:12)
It is shown that the film was composed by Ennio Morricone (00:01:12)
001-Basic info (IMDB)

Director: Terence Young
Writers: Joseph Conrad (novel), Jo Eisinger
Stars: Anthony Quinn, Rosanna Schiaffino, Rita Hayworth

Cast (in credits order)

Anthony Quinn ...
Peyrol Rosanna Schiaffino Rosanna Schiaffino ...
Arlette Rita Hayworth Rita Hayworth ...
Aunt Caterina Richard Johnson Richard Johnson ...
Real Ivo Garrani Ivo Garrani ...
Scevola Mino Doro Mino Doro ...
Dussard Luciano Rossi Luciano Rossi ...
Michel Mirko Valentin Mirko Valentin ...
Jacot Giovanni Di Benedetto Giovanni Di Benedetto ...
Lt. Bolt (as Gianni De Benedetto) Anthony Dawson Anthony Dawson ...
Captain Vincent Franco Giornelli Franco Giornelli ...
Simmons Franco Fantasia Franco Fantasia ...
French Admiral Fabrizio Jovine Fabrizio Jovine ...
Archives Officer John Lane John Lane ...
Captain of the Port Vittorio Venturoli Vittorio Venturoli ...
French Officer Gustavo Gionni Gustavo Gionni ...
Sans-Culotte Lucio De Santis Lucio De Santis ...
Fisherman Raffaella Micieli Raffaella Micieli ...
Arlette as a Child Paola Bossalino Paola Bossalino ...
Girl Rita Klein Rita Klein ...
Girl Catherine Alexander Catherine Alexander ...
Girl Ruggero Salvadori Ruggero Salvadori ...

Country: Italy
Language: Italian
Release Date: 8 September 1967 (Italy)
Sound Mix: Mono
Color: Color
Genres: War | Drama
Music by Ennio Morricone
Also Known As (AKA)
L'avventuriero Italy (original title)
A kalandor Hungary
Ich komme vom Ende der Welt West Germany
Kaparkaptenen Peyrol Sweden
Maceralar beldesi Turkey (Turkish title)
O antartis Greece (transliterated ISO-LATIN-1 title)
Peyrol le boucanier France
The Rover USA
Viimeinen merirosvo Finland
001-A former counterrevolutionary pirate befriends a mentally ill young woman and this in turn leads to tragedy when she falls in love with a French naval officer.l.(IMDBI)
002-“L’avventuriero” (The rover) is a 1967 movie directed by Terence Young and starring Anthony Quinn, Rita Hayworth, Rosanna Schiaffino and Richard Johnson. The movie tells of an old pirate who searching for redemption refugees at two castle women, auntie and nephew. The young girl suffers psychic rabbles following a very old trauma that the rascal succeed to cure. The seaman at the end will die heroically during a risky exploit. Ennio Morricone has written a soundtrack with a classic vein where the intense “Peirol theme” stands out performed by the viola of Dino Asciolla accompanied by the symphonic orchestra conducted by Bruno Nicolai. This CD is realized using the stereo selections of the original album and mono bonus tracks, from the original recording session master tapes digitally restored and remastered. (Here)
003-Based on a story by Joseph Conrad, this 18th-century set drama is set shortly after the French Revolution and chronicles the exploits of a former counterrevolutionary pirate who befriends a mentally ill, naive young woman. Eventually his feelings of friendship turn to love and this in turn leads to tragedy when she falls in love with a French naval officer (Here)
004-The Rover, based upon the novel by Joseph Conrad, was one of several European-made films in which Rita starred in the 60's and 70's. This one was made in Italy under the title of L'Avventuriero. The picture reunited Rita with Anthony Quinn onscreen for the first time since 1941, nearly 30 years before, when they co-starred in Blood and Sand. During their days making Blood and Sand together, the two enjoyed a brief romance off the screen.
Set in France during the aftermath of the French Revolution, the story begins on the high seas where a sailor named Peyrol (Anthony Quinn) is nearing a French harbor. After narrowly escaping attack by a British fleet, Peyrol sails into the port of Toulon to deliver a message to the Admiral. Peyrol has been a pirate for most of his life, and it is known that he is against the revolution. Being a prime candidate for the guillotine, Peyrol flees to his hometown, a small village on the French coast.

There he meets Arlette (Rosanna Schiaffino), a girl he saves from a mob of angry villagers. After witnessing the horrible deaths of her parents as a child during the revolution, Arlette became mentally unbalanced. Grateful to Peyrol, Arlette takes him to her home and offers him a room. Needing a place to stay until he can venture out to sea again, he accepts the room. Arlette lives with her Aunt Catherine (Rita Hayworth). Catherine watches over Arlette, protecting her from the rest of the world. Also living in the house is Scevola (Ivo Garrani), an angry revolutionary who has it in for Peyrol. Anxious to set sail, Peyrol buys a certain boat, which unbeknownst to him, was the scene of the brutal murders of Arlette's parents.

Arlette becomes enamored of Peyrol. Later, after an encounter with Peyrol, an angry Scevola starts a fire during which Arlette has horrible visions of her parents' death. The visions have the effect of returning all sanity to her mind. A French naval officer named Real (Richard Johnson) arrives at their home. Before long he finds out that Peyrol is a wanted man, but lets him be because he will soon need his help. Arlette and Real soon begin a romance, to the displeasure of Peyrol who has by now fallen in love with the girl.

Real has a military mission to complete and he needs the assistance of an experienced sailor, Peyrol. He needs to set sail with phony military orders and get caught by the British, who won't know that the orders are fake, and will be lead into a trap. Doing so would land both Real and Peyrol in a British prison, but it would be for the good of France. Peyrol is unwilling to accept the mission. Furthermore he realizes that it's true love between Arlette and Real, and he prepares return to life on the high seas.

The love triangle is further complicated when Catherine expresses her love for Peyrol. She asks him to stay with her. But he thinks he's not good enough, saying, "You deserve something better than a wounded old fool." He leaves the next day. Shortly after sailing, still in view of the house, Peyrol is killed by the British. Catherine, Arlette and Real watch from their home as Peyrol has a sailor's burial -drifting into the sea in his sinking ship.

The Rover finished shooting in 1966 and was released as L'Avventuriero in Italy in 1967. With its English title, it was not released in the United States until 1971, and at that time it was given very limited theatrical release and overlooked by the critics. The picture was made in Italy and Rita remained working there for a time afterwards. In this, one of her final films, Rita displays an earthy, mature quality in her acting as well as beauty as "Catherine" (Caterina in the Italian version, for which she did her own vocals). (Here)

OO2-The Stills
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003- About Director Terence Young
Terence Young

Date of Birth 20 June 1915 , Shanghai, China
Date of Death 7 September 1994 , Cannes, Alpes-Maritimes, France (heart attack)

Born in Shanghai and Cambridge-educated, Terence Young began in the industry as a scriptwriter. In the 1940s he worked on a variety of subjects, including the hugely popular wartime romance Dangerous Moonlight (1941), set to Richard Addinsell's rousing "Warsaw Concerto". His original story was devised while listening to a concert in an army training camp. As it turned out, Young was soon after involved in the war himself, as a member of the Guards.

Director Terence Young

By the end of the decade Young had graduated to directing. He made his debut with the psychological melodrama Corridor of Mirrors (1948), starring Eric Portman as a reclusive art collector obsessed with reincarnation and murder. During the following decade Young helmed a number of international co-productions, which featured imported stars from Hollywood (Alan Ladd in The Red Beret (1953); Olivia de Havilland in That Lady (1955); Victor Mature in Safari (1956), Zarak (1956) and No Time to Die (1958)). These films were made by Warwick, an independent production company created jointly by Irwin Allen and future James Bond producer Albert R. Broccoli, and released through Columbia. Production values were often quite high, though scripts were of variable quality. "Safari", for instance, looked great, shot in Technicolor and CinemaScope on location in Africa, which partly compensated for the trite storyline.

Having acquired the rights to all available James Bond novels from Ian Fleming, producers Harry Saltzman and Albert Broccoli secured the necessary funding ($1,250,000) from United Artists and hired Young to direct the initial Bond entry, Dr. No (1962). That film's success got him re-hired to direct the next two Bond films, From Russia with Love (1963) (Young's own personal favorite) and Thunderball (1965). Young had acquired a solid reputation as a master of action subjects, and all three films move at a cracking pace. Exotic locales provide the background for a seamless mix of technical wizardry, sex, violence and tongue-in-cheek (sometimes campy) dialogue. Unfortunately, these films also marked the high point of Young's career, though he did direct another eerily effective psychological thriller, Wait Until Dark (1967), much in the vein of Alfred Hitchcock.

/Terence Young

Among a brace of forgettable European co-productions, only two other films stand out: the bawdy, highly entertaining all-star period comedy The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders (1965) and an intriguing expose of the inner workings--and dark beginnings--of the Cosa Nostra (based on an actual informant's testimony), entitled The Valachi Papers (1972). After that, Young's output became more patchy and his later career suffered as a result of two disastrous projects: first, the Korean War epic Inchon (1981), with Laurence Olivier badly miscast as Gen. Douglas MacArthur. The enterprise was reputedly financed by the Rev. Sun Myung Moon's organization--aka the "Moonies"--to the tune of $40 million. Film critic Vincent Canby in the New York Times (September 17, 1982) referred to the picture as "hysterical" and "foolish", "the most expensive B-movie ever made". The second flop, a financially troubled production, was the predictably plotted spy thriller The Jigsaw Man (1984). Completed in 1982, the film was held back and not released until two years later. Young directed just one more film after that and left the industry in 1988. However, according to his daughter, he was working on a documentary in Cannes at the time of his death in September 1994. Though he went on record in 1966, asserting that he had grown rather tired of the Bond franchise, it is, nonetheless, that for which we will ultimately remember him. - IMDb Mini Biography By: I.S.Mowis (IMDB)

Trivia During World War II, he was a paratrooper in the British army, and took part in the battle of Arnhem, Holland, where he was wounded. Young was transferred to a Dutch hospital, where he was nursed back to health. One of the volunteer nurses who took care of him was a 16-year-old Dutch girl named Audrey Heenstra - who became better known as Audrey Hepburn. More than 20 years later, he directed her in Wait Until Dark (1967).
In his late years, he directed a six-hour documentary on, and for, Libyan dictator Muammar Gadaffi in Libya, titled "The Long Journeys" or "The Long Days". The Portuguese given title was "Os Longos Dias" (no release year), but the film has never been screened outside Libya.
Doubled for terminally ill actor Pedro Armendáriz in some of his long shots in From Russia with Love (1963).
Directed his wife Dorothea Bennett's novel The Jigsaw Man (1984).
He was in a helicopter which crashed over water whilst filming From Russia with Love (1963). It trapped the director below the surface for a considerable time in an air bubble inside the copter's canopy. He was rescued and then immediately went back behind the camera with his arm in a sling.
Personal Quotes Of all the Bond films I did, From Russia with Love (1963) was the best.
Any fool can be uncomfortable. (IMDB)
Terence Young (director)

Born Shaun Terence Young[1]
20 June 1915
Shanghai, China
Died 7 September 1994 (aged 79)
Cannes, France
Occupation Film director
Spouse(s) Dorothea Bennett
Sabine Sun

Shaun Terence Young (20 June 1915 – 7 September 1994) was a British film director and screenwriter best known for directing three James Bond films, Dr. No (1962), From Russia with Love (1963), and Thunderball (1965).

Director Terence Young


The son of a Police Commissioner of the Shanghai Municipal Police, Young was born in Shanghai, China and was public-school educated. He read oriental history at St Catharine's College in the University of Cambridge.

Commissioned in the Irish Guards, Young was a tank commander during World War II where he participated in Operation Market Garden in Arnhem, Netherlands.
Film career

Young began his film career as a screenwriter in British films of the 1940s, working, for example, on Brian Desmond Hurst's On the Night of the Fire (1939), Dangerous Moonlight (1941) and A Letter From Ulster. In 1946, he returned to assist Hurst with the script of Theirs is the Glory, which recaptured the fighting around Arnhem bridge. Arnhem, coincidentally, was home to the adolescent Audrey Hepburn. During the filming of Young's film, Wait Until Dark, Hepburn and Young would joke that he was shelling his favorite star without even knowing it. Young also directed an account of the Guards Armoured Division They Were Not Divided.

Young's first sole credit as director (and also Christopher Lee's film debut) was Corridor of Mirrors (1948), an acclaimed film made in France.

After directing a few English films, Young directed several films for Irving Allen and Albert R. Broccoli's Warwick Films in the 1950s, including The Red Beret with Alan Ladd. Young was also a story editor at Warwick. This association led to his being offered the directorship of the first two James Bond films.
Bond / Young

Young had previously worked five years earlier with the then relatively unknown Sean Connery, who was to play Bond, on Action of the Tiger. For the first Bond film, Lois Maxwell claimed that "Terence took Sean under his wing. He took him to dinner, showed him how to walk, how to talk, even how to eat."[2] It led to three of the first four Bond films: Dr. No, From Russia with Love, and Thunderball. They became financially and critically successful and helped Sean Connery become a superstar during the 1960s.

During the filming of From Russia with Love, Young and a photographer nearly drowned when their helicopter crashed into the sea while filming a key sequence. They were rescued by other members of the film crew. Young was back behind the camera thirty minutes after being rescued.
Later work

Young never made many films as popular as his mid sixties work that included The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders with husband and wife team Richard Johnson and Kim Novak, and Wait Until Dark with Audrey Hepburn.

He made many films in Europe, including The Poppy Is Also a Flower (1965), Triple Cross (1966) - a story of Eddie Chapman starring Christopher Plummer, Mayerling (1968), L'Arbre de Noel (US: The Christmas Tree aka When Wolves Cry) starring William Holden (1969), and several films with Charles Bronson including Red Sun, Cold Sweat and The Valachi Papers. Young also has story credit for the French spy film Atout coeur à Tokyo pour OSS 117.

According to Young, he was offered and turned down the direction of For Your Eyes Only and Never Say Never Again.

Young also replaced the original directors of The Klansman and The Jigsaw Man. He undertook Sidney Sheldon's Bloodline (1979) and Inchon (1981). Young was also the editor of The Long Days or al-Ayyam al-Tawila, a six hour Iraqi telenovela about the life of Saddam Hussein.[3]

Young also directed Laurence Olivier in Inchon (1981) and The Jigsaw Man (1982). Olivier and Young had been friends since 1943 when Olivier had initially offered the direction of his film Henry V (1944) to Young, who declined.[4]

His wife was the novelist Dorothea Bennett. He died of a heart attack at the age of 79 in Cannes. (WIKI)

Filmography ( Director)

Director (40 credits)
1988 Run for Your Life
1984 The Jigsaw Man
1981 Inchon
1980 Al-ayyam al-tawila (unconfirmed, uncredited)
1979 Bloodline
1977 Woo fook
1975 Jackpot
1974 Klansman
1973 Le guerriere dal seno nudo
1972 The Valachi Papers
1971 Soleil rouge
1970 De la part des copains
1969 L'arbre de Noël
1968 Mayerling
1967 Wait Until Dark
1967 L'avventuriero

1966 Triple Cross
1966 Poppies Are Also Flowers
1965 Thunderball
1965 The Dirty Game
1965 The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders

1963 From Russia with Love
1962 Dr. No
1961 Orazi e Curiazi (english version)
1961 1-2-3-4 ou Les collants noirs
1960 Too Hot to Handle
1959 Serious Charge
1958 No Time to Die
1957 Action of the Tiger
1956 Zarak
1956 Safari
1955 Storm Over the Nile
1955 That Lady
1953 The Red Beret
1952 Tall Headlines
1951 Valley of Eagles
1950 They Were Not Divided
1948 Woman Hater
1948 One Night with You
1948 Corridor of Mirrors (IMDB)
004- About actors
004-1 Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn

Antonio Rodolfo Quinn Oaxaca (April 21, 1915 – June 3, 2001), more commonly known as Anthony Quinn, was a Mexican American actor, as well as a painter and writer. He starred in numerous critically acclaimed and commercially successful films, including La Strada, The Guns of Navarone, Lawrence of Arabia, Zorba the Greek, Guns for San Sebastian, The Message and Lion of the Desert. He won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor twice: for Viva Zapata! in 1952 and Lust for Life in 1956.(WIKI)

Anthony Quinn was born Antonio Rudolfo Oaxaca Quinn on April 21, 1915, in Chihuahua, Mexico, to an Irish-Mexican father and a Mexican mother. After starting life in extremely modest circumstances in Mexico, his family moved to Los Angeles, California, where he grew up in the Boyle Heights and the Echo Park neighborhoods. In Los Angeles he attended Polytechnic High School and later Belmont High, but he eventually dropped out. The young Quinn boxed (which stood him in good stead as a stage actor, when he played Stanley Kowalski to rave reviews in Chicago), then later studied architecture under Frank Lloyd Wright at the great architect's studio, Taliesin, in Arizona. Quinn was close to Wright, who encouraged him when Quinn decided to give acting a try. After a brief apprenticeship in theatre, Quinn hit Hollywood in 1936 and picked up a variety of small roles in several films at Paramount, including an Indian warrior in The Plainsman (1936), which was directed by the man who later became his father-in-law, Cecil B. DeMille.....(IMDB)

In the 1960s Quinn told Life magazine that he would fight against typecasting. Unfortunately, the following decade saw him slip back into playing ethnic types again, in such critical bombs as The Greek Tycoon (1978). He starred as the Hispanic mayor of a southwestern city in the short-lived 1971 TV series The Man and the City (1971), but his career lost its momentum during the 1970s. Aside from playing a thinly disguised Aristotle Onassis in the cinematic roman-a-clef "The Greek Tycoon", his other major roles of the decade was as Hamza in the controversial 1977 movie The Message (1977) (a.k.a. "Mohammad, Messenger of God", as the Italian patriarch in L'eredità Ferramonti (1976), yet another Arab in Caravans (1978) and a Mexican patriarch in The Children of Sanchez (1978). In 1983 he reprised his most famous role, Zorba the Greek, t on Broadway in the revival of the musical "Zorba", for 362 performances. Though his film career slowed during the 1990s, he continued to work steadily in films and television.

Quinn lived out the latter years of his life in Bristol, Rhode Island, where he operated a restaurant. He died in hospital in Boston from pneumonia and respiratory failure linked to his battle with throat cancer. He was 86 years old.(IMDB)

Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
Anthony Quinn
004-2 Rosanna Schiaffino
Rosanna Schiaffino
Rosanna Schiaffino (November 25, 1939 – October 17, 2009) was an Italian film actress. She appeared on the covers of Italian, German, French, British and American magazines. (WIKI)

Rosanna Schiaffino

Film career She began a promising acting career in the post-neorealist cinema of the 1950s. She was noticed by film producer Franco Cristaldi, who paired her with Marcello Mastroianni in Piece of the Sky in 1959. More important was her second film for him, La sfida (The Challenge), directed by Francesco Rosi, where she made a name for her powerful but sensitive performance as a Neapolitan girl, inspired by the real-life character of Pupetta Maresca. The film was well received at the 1958 Venice festival.

Schiaffino was launched as the "Italian Hedy Lamarr". However, she would have been more appropriately introduced as the new Italian sex goddess after Gina Lollobrigida and Sophia Loren, but in the early 1960s that role was passing to Claudia Cardinale.

In 1966 she married producer Alfredo Bini. After many further films, none of them particularly notable, she decided to give up the cinema and divorced Bini in 1976, with whom she had a daughter. (More)

004-3 Rita Hayworth
 Rita Hayworth
Rita Hayworth
Rita Hayworth (born Margarita Carmen Cansino; October 17, 1918 – May 14, 1987) was an American dancer and film actress who achieved fame during the 1940s as one of the era's top stars. Appearing first as Rita Cansino, she agreed to change her name to Rita Hayworth and her natural dark brown hair color to dark red to attract a greater range of roles. Her appeal led to her being featured on the cover of Life magazine five times, beginning in 1940.[1]

Hayworth appeared in a total of 61 films over 37 years. She is one of six women who have the distinction of having danced on screen with both Fred Astaire and Gene Kelly.[2] She is listed by the American Film Institute as one of the 100 Greatest Stars of All Time.....(WIKI)

004-4 Richard Johnson
Richard Johnson
Richard Johnson
Richard Johnson (born 30 July 1927) is an English actor, writer and producer, who starred in several British films of the 1960s and has also had a distinguished stage career. He most recently appeared in The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas. (WIKI)
005-The film and its background information
01-The location of the film story takes place-Toulon and Porquerolles island (00:08:33-00:09:11 and 00:19:34-00:19:54)
The location of the film story takes place-Toulon
The location of the film story takes place-Toulon and Porquerolles island
Porquerolles island

Napoleon and the Siege of Toulon 1793

The French Revolution transformed almost every aspect of French public life, and grew arguably more radical as the years passed. However, these changes were far from universally popular, and as many French citizens fled, others decided to rebel against a revolution they saw as increasingly Parisian and extreme. By 1793 these rebellions had turned into widespread, open and violent revolt, with a revolutionary army / militia sent out to crush these enemies within.

Toulon The site of one such rebellion was Toulon, a port on the south coast of France. Here the situation was critical to the revolutionary government, as not only was Toulon an important naval base – France was engaged in wars against many of the monarchist states of Europe – but the rebels had invited in British ships and handed over control to their commanders. Toulon had some of the thickest and most advanced defences, not just in France, but in Europe, and would have to be retaken by the revolutionary forces to help secure the nation.

Napoleon and the Siege of Toulon 1793
The Siege and the Rise of Napoleon Command of the revolutionary army assigned to Toulon was given to General Carteaux, and he was accompanied by a ‘representative on mission’, basically a political officer designed to make sure he was being sufficiently ‘patriotic’. Carteaux began a siege of the port in 1793.

The effects of the revolution on army had been severe, as many of the officers had been nobility and as they were persecuted they fled the country. Consequently, there were many open spaces and plenty of promotion from lower ranks based on ability rather than birth rank. Even so, when the commander of Carteaux’s artillery was wounded and had to leave in September, it wasn’t purely skill that got a young officer called Napoleon Bonaparte appointed as his replacement, as both he and the representative on mission who promoted him – Saliceti – were from Corsica. Carteaux had no say in the matter.

Major Bonaparte now showed great skill in increasing and deploying his resources, using a keen understanding of terrain to slowly take key areas and undermine the British hold on Toulon. Who played the key role in the final act is debated, Napoleon played a vital role, and he was able to take full credit when the port fell on December 19th 1793. His name was now known by key figures in the revolutionary government, and he was both promoted to Brigadier General and given command of the artillery in the Army of Italy.(Here)

Napoleon and the Siege of Toulon 1793

Siege of Toulon The Siege of Toulon (18 September - 18 December 1793) was an early Republican victory over a Royalist rebellion in the Southern French city of Toulon. It is also called the Fall of Toulon. After the arrest of the Girondist deputies on the 31 May 1793, there followed a series of insurrections within the French cities of Lyon, Avignon, Ni6mes and Marseille. In Toulon, the revolutionaries evicted the existing Jacobin faction but were soon supplanted by the more numerous royalists. Upon the announcement of the recapture of Marseille and of the reprisals which had taken place there at the hands of the revolutionaries, the royalist forces, directed by the Baron d'Imbert, called for aid from the Anglo-Spanish fleet. On 28 August, Admiral Sir Samuel Hood of the Royal Navy and Admiral Juan de Lángara of the Spanish Navy, committed a force of 13,000 British, Spanish, Neapolitan and Piedmontese troops to the French royalists' cause. This was a serious blow to the arms of the republic, as it was a key naval arsenal of the country. If France were to lose this port, there was no hope for her naval ambitions. Which would mean by proxy that any ambition to challenge the Allies, and specifically the British, for control of the seas would be out of the question. Not only that, but its loss could set a dangerous precedent for other areas that menaced the republic with revolt. The survival of the Republic was at stake. On 1 October, Baron d'Imbert proclaimed the young Louis XVII to be king of France, and hoisted the French royalist flag of the fleur de lys, delivering the town of Toulon to the British navy........

Despite the mutual dislike between Bonaparte and his commanding officer, the young artillery officer was able to muster an artillery force that was worthy of a siege of Toulon and the fortresses that were quickly built by England in its immediate environs. He was able to requisition equipment and cannon from the surrounding area. Guns were taken from Marseilles, Avignon and the Army of Italy. The local populace, which was eager to prove

its loyalty to the republicwhich it had recently rebelled against, was blackmailed into supplying the besieging force with animals and supplies. His activity resulted in the acquisition of 100 guns for the force. With the help of his friends, the deputies Saliceti and Augustin Robespierre, who held power of life and death, he was able to compel retired artillery officers from the area to re-enlist. The problem of manning the guns was not remedied by this solution alone, and under Bonaparte's intensive training he instructed much of the infantry in the practice of employing, deploying and firing the artillery that his efforts had recently acquired.

However, in spite of this effort, Bonaparte was not as confident about this operation as was later his custom. The officers serving with him in the siege were incompetent, and he was becoming concerned about the needless delays due to these officers' mistakes. He was so concerned that he wrote a letter of appeal to the Committee of Public Safety requesting assistance. To deal with his superiors who were wanting in skill, he proposed the appointment of a general for command of the artillery, succeeding himself, so that "... (they could) command respect and deal with a crowd of fools on the staff with whom one has constantly to argue and lay down the law in order to overcome their prejudices and make them take steps which theory and practice alike have shown to be axiomatic to any trained officer of this corps"........(More)

02-French Revolution (00:31:54-00:34:32)
French Revolution
French Revolution-Storming of the Bastille 14 July 1789
French Revolution-Executed Louis XVI
French Revolution-Storming of the Bastille 14 July 1789
French Revolution-Executed Louis XVI

French Revolution

The French Revolution (French: Révolution française) was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France from 1789 to 1799 that profoundly affected French and modern history, marking the decline of powerful monarchies and churches and the rise of democracy and nationalism. Popular resentment of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and aristocracy grew amidst a financial crisis following two expensive wars and years of bad harvests, motivating demands for change. These were couched in terms of Enlightenment ideals and caused the convocation of the Estates-General in May 1789. The first year of the Revolution saw members of the Third Estate taking control, the assault on the Bastille in July, the passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August, and a march on Versailles that forced the royal court back to Paris in October. A central event of first stage was the abolition of feudalism and the old rules, taxes, courts and privileges left over from the age of feudalism on 4 August 1789.The next stage was dominated by struggles between various liberal assemblies and right-wing supporters of the monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms. A republic was proclaimed in September 1792. In a momentous event that led to international condemnation, King Louis XVI was executed on 21 January 1793.

-French Revolution

External threats closely shaped the course of the Revolution. The Revolutionary Wars beginning in 1792 ultimately featured French victories that facilitated the conquest of the Italian Peninsula, the Low Countries and most territories west of the Rhine – achievements that had eluded previous French governments for centuries. Internally, popular agitation radicalized the Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins. The dictatorship imposed by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror, from 1793 until 1794, caused up to 40,000 deaths inside France,[1] abolished slavery in the colonies, and secured the borders of the new republic from its enemies. The Reign of Terror ended with the overthrow and execution of Robespierre and the other leading Jacobins in the Thermidorian Reaction. The Directory assumed control of the French state in 1795 and held power until 1799. In that year, conventionally seen as the conclusion of the Revolution, Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew the Directory in the coup of 18 Brumaire and established the Consulate. The First Empire under Napoleon emerged in 1804 and spread French revolutionary principles all over Europe during the Napoleonic Wars. The First Empire was militarily defeated by an anti-Napoleonic coalition that in 1815 brought about the restoration of the Bourbons, albeit under a constitutional monarchy, and the reversion to France's traditional frontiers.The modern era has unfolded in the shadow of the French Revolution. French society itself underwent a transformation as feudal, aristocratic, and religious privileges disappeared and old ideas about tradition and hierarchy were abruptly overthrown under the mantra of "Liberté, égalité, fraternité". Globally, the Revolution accelerated the rise of republics and democracies, the spread of liberalism, nationalism, socialism and secularism, the development of modern political ideologies, and the practice of total war. Some of its central documents, like the Declaration of the Rights of Man, expanded the arena of human rights to include women and slaves............(WIKI)

The 1830 July Revolution and the July Monarchy

After a long ministerial, then parliamentary crisis, Charles X executed a constitutional takeover on 25th July 1830, turning the people of Paris against him. On 27th, 28th and 29th July 1830, known as the "Three Glorious Days", the rioters erected barricades in the streets and confronted the army in bloody combat, resulting in more than one thousand dead.
Charles X and the royal family fled from Paris. The Liberal deputies brought the popular revolt under control, and instated a constitutional monarchy. One king came after another. The Bourbon dynasty was replaced by the Orleans dynasty with Louis-Philippe I. However, it was no longer an absolute monarchy, and the white flag once again yielded to the Tricolore topped by the Gallic cockerel. The King of France was henceforth King of the French.(Here)

Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People for July Revolution of 1830,
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People for July Revolution of 1830,
03-The Napoleonic Invasion of Egypt (01:20:10-01:22:03)
The Napoleonic Invasion of Egypt
The French Campaign in Egypt and Syria (1798–1801) was Napoleon Bonaparte's campaign in the Orient, ostensibly to protect French trade interests, undermine Britain's access to India, and to establish scientific enterprise in the region. It was the primary purpose of the Mediterranean campaign of 1798, a series of naval engagements that included the capture of Malta.

Despite many decisive victories and an initially successful expedition into Syria, Napoleon and his Armée d'Orient were eventually forced to withdraw, after sowing political disharmony in France, conflict in Europe, and suffering the defeat of the supporting French fleet at the Battle of the Nile.......

Before departure from Toulon

Rumors became rife as 40,000 soldiers and 10,000 sailors were gathered in French Mediterranean ports. A large fleet was assembled at Toulon: 13 ships of the line, 14 frigates, and 400 transports. To avoid interception by the British fleet under Nelson, the expeditions's target was kept secret. It was known only to Bonaparte himself, his generals Berthier and Caffarelli, and the mathematician Gaspard Monge.[2] Bonaparte was the commander, with subordinates including Thomas Alexandre Dumas, Kléber, Desaix, Berthier, Caffarelli, Lannes, Damas, Murat, Andréossy, Belliard, Menou, and Zajączek. His aides de camp included his brother Louis Bonaparte, Duroc, Eugène de Beauharnais, Thomas Prosper Jullien, and the Polish nobleman Joseph Sulkowski.

The fleet at Toulon was joined by squadrons from Genoa, Civitavecchia and Bastia and was put under the command of Admiral Brueys and Contre-amirals Villeneuve, Du Chayla, Decrès and Ganteaume.

The fleet was about to set sail when a crisis developed with Austria, and the Directoire recalled Bonaparte in case war broke out. The crisis was resolved in a few weeks, and Bonaparte received orders to travel to Toulon as soon as possible. It is claimed[by whom?] that, in a stormy meeting with the Directoire, Bonaparte threatened to dissolve them and directeur Reubell gave him a pen saying "Sign there, general!"

Bonaparte arrived at Toulon on 9 May 1798, lodging with Benoît Georges de Najac, the officer in charge of preparing the fleet. The army embarked confident in their commander's talent and on 19 May, just as he embarked, Bonaparte addressed the troops, especially those who had served under him in the Armée d'Italie.......(Here)

04-Brotherhood of the coast (00:09:11-01:10:02 and 01:05:06-01:05:41)
Brotherhood of the coast
Brotherhood of the coast
/Brotherhood of the coast
History The first Brothers of the Coast were a band of adventurers from France, England, Holland and some other nations; but none from Spain, their common enemy. At the beginning they were more hunters than sailors. They used to smoke fish and meat. The smoked meat was called "boucan" and soon they were known as "boucaniers," or, in English, "buccaneers." They were established in the West Indies (today the Antilles), most of them on the islands of Hispaniola (today Haiti and the Dominican Republic) and Tortuga. Later on, they associated with pirates and, in the 17th century, were known as "flibustiers" in French or "freebooter" in English. Many of them organized a society with one man sharing with another all things in common. At sea, they had some discipline and some rules. But, in general they were very democratic. All captains were elected by the sailors who, in turn, were free to join another ship when they were tired of their captain. They had rules regarding the bounty they captured or regarding their wounded companions.

They called themselves the "Frères de la C?te" or "Brothers of the Coast." Their golden age was the 17th century. But when regular squadrons were sent out to protect the interests of the planters, this golden age was over. By the end of the 17th century, they were exterminated and there were no more Brothers of the Coast........(Here

The Brethren or Brethren of the Coast were a loose coalition of pirates and privateers commonly known as buccaneers and active in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in the Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico.

They were a syndicate of captains with letters of marque and reprisal who regulated their privateering enterprises within the community of privateers and with their outside benefactors. They were primarily private individual merchant mariners of Protestant background usually of English and French origin.

During their heyday when the Thirty Years War was devastating the Protestant communities of France, Germany and the Netherlands while England was engaged in various conflicts, the privateers of these nationalities were issued letters of marque to raid Catholic French and Spanish shipping and territories.

/Brotherhood of the coast
Based primarily on the island of Tortuga off the coast of Haiti and in the city of Port Royal on the island of Jamaica, the original Brethren were mostly French Huguenot and British Protestants, but their ranks were joined by other adventurers of various nationalities including Spaniards, and even African sailors, as well as escaped slaves and outlaws of various sovereigns.In keeping with their Protestant and mostly Common Law heritage the Brethren were governed by codes of conduct that favored legislative decision-making, hierarchical command authority, individual rights, and equitable division of revenues.Henry Morgan are perhaps the most famous members of the Brethren and the one usually noted with codifying its organization. However, following the demographic changes which featured the rise of slave labor in the Caribbean islands, most maritime families moved to the mainland colonies of the future United States or to their home countries. A few, unable to compete effectively with slave labor, enamored of easy riches, or out of angst continued to maintain the Brethren of the Coasts as a purely criminal organization which preyed upon all civilian maritime shipping. This second era of the Brethren began the start of the age of piracy and brigandage which featured the Caribbean until socioeconomic and military changes of the late 18th and early 19th century finally broke its back.A fictionalized, romanticized version of the Brethren was featured in the Pirates of the Caribbean series of films.(Wiki)
006-About the novel and its auther Joseph Conrad
Joseph Conrad Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski;:11–12 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924) was a Polish author who wrote in English after settling in England. He was granted British nationality in 1886, but always considered himself a Pole.[note 1] Conrad is regarded as one of the greatest novelists in English, though he did not speak the language fluently until he was in his twenties (and always with a marked accent). He wrote stories and novels, often with a nautical setting, that depict trials of the human spirit in the midst of an indifferent universe. He was a master prose stylist who brought a distinctly non-English[note 2] tragic sensibility into English literature.

While some of his works have a strain of romanticism, his works are viewed as modernist literature. His narrative style and anti-heroic characters have influenced many authors, including D. H. Lawrence, T.S. Eliot, F. Scott Fitzgerald, William Faulkner, Gerald Basil Edwards, Ernest Hemingway, George Orwell,:254 Graham Greene, Malcolm Lowry, William Golding, William S. Burroughs, Joseph Heller, Italo Calvino, Gabriel García Márquez, J. G. Ballard, Chinua Achebe, John le Carré, V. S. Naipaul, Philip Roth, Hunter S. Thompson, J. M. Coetzee and Salman Rushdie.

Films have been adapted from, or inspired by, Conrad's Almayer's Folly, An Outcast of the Islands, Heart of Darkness, Lord Jim, Nostromo, The Secret Agent, The Duel, Victory, The Shadow Line, and The Rover.

Writing in the heyday of the British Empire, Conrad drew on his native Poland's national experiences and on his personal experiences in the French and British merchant navies, to create short stories and novels that reflect aspects of a European-dominated world, while plumbing the depths of the human soul. Appreciated early on by literary cognoscenti, his fiction and nonfiction have gained an almost prophetic cachet in the light of subsequent national and international disasters of the 20th and 21st centuries.(Here)

"The Rover": A nautical psychological thriller from one of literature's giants. From Joseph Conrad, one of the modern masters of literature, comes this tale of intrigue in the opening days of the Napoleonic wars. Peyrol, a French pirate from the Indian seas, returns to his home country to find himself threatened by both British and French forces. His flight through Imperial France, his daring mission carrying dispatches through the British blockade, and his doomed love affair with the daughter of a French sailor are all related in Conrad's irresistibly atmospheric and suspenseful style.(Here
"Almayer's Folly / the Rover" : From the rain forests of Almayer's Folly to the Mediterranean coast of The Rover, Conrad's first and final completed novels are played out against contrasting backgrounds. Almayer, in Borneo, is hopelessly obsessed by his deluded dreams for himself and his daughter, which take no account of her falling in love with a handsome Balinese prince. Peyrol, the rover, returns to a France at war and finds the actions of those around him still overborne by memories of revolutionary terror. For the orphaned Lieutenant Real and Arlette love offers release but their romance seems doomed by the demands of his naval duties. Conrad's acute understanding of human psychology and its application across racial and ideological divides is the life-force of both stories (Here


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